Acrylonitrilebutadieneandstyrene(monomers)

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in theirstandard state(at 25C [77F], 100kPa).

0.9 g/cm3 1.53 g/cm3: median 1.07 g/cm3

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene(ABS) (chemical formula(C8H8)x​(C4H6)y​(C3H3N)z) is a commonthermoplasticpolymer. Itsglass transitiontemperature is approximately 105C (221F).[2]ABS isamorphousand therefore has no true melting point.

ABS is aterpolymermade by polymerizingstyreneandacrylonitrilein the presence ofpolybutadiene. The proportions can vary from 15 to 35% acrylonitrile, 5 to 30%butadieneand 40 to 60% styrene. The result is a long chain of polybutadiene criss-crossed with shorter chains of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). Thenitrilegroups from neighboring chains, being polar, attract each other and bind the chains together, making ABS stronger than purepolystyrene. The styrene gives the plastic a shiny, impervious surface. The polybutadiene, arubberysubstance, providestoughnesseven at lowtemperatures. For the majority of applications, ABS can be used between −20 and 80C (−4 and 176F) as its mechanical properties vary with temperature.[3]The properties are created byrubber toughening, where fine particles of elastomer are distributed throughout the rigid matrix.

The most important mechanical properties of ABS are impact resistance and toughness. A variety of modifications can be made to improve impact resistance, toughness, and heat resistance. The impact resistance can be amplified by increasing the proportions of polybutadiene in relation to styrene and also acrylonitrile, although this causes changes in other properties. Impact resistance does not fall off rapidly at lower temperatures. Stability under load is excellent with limited loads. Thus, by changing the proportions of its components, ABS can be prepared in different grades. Two major categories could be ABS for extrusion and ABS for injection moulding, then high and medium impact resistance. Generally ABS would have useful characteristics within a temperature range from −20 to 80C (−4 to 176F).[3]

The final properties will be influenced to some extent by the conditions under which the material is processed to the final product. For example, molding at a high temperature improves the gloss and heat resistance of the product whereas the highest impact resistance and strength are obtained by molding at low temperature. Fibers (usually glass fibers) and additives can be mixed in theresinpellets to make the final product strong and raise the maximum operating temperature as high as 80C (176F). Pigments can also be added, as the raw material original color is translucent ivory to white. The aging characteristics of the polymers are largely influenced by the polybutadiene content, and it is normal to includeantioxidantsin the composition. Other factors include exposure toultraviolet radiation, which additives are also available to protect against.

ABS polymers are resistant to aqueous acids, alkalis, concentratedhydrochloricandphosphoricacids,alcoholsand animal, vegetable and mineral oils, but they are swollen byglacial acetic acidcarbon tetrachlorideandaromatichydrocarbons and are attacked by concentratedsulfuricandnitricacids. They are soluble inestersketonesethylene dichlorideandacetone.[5]

Even though ABS plastics are used largely for mechanical purposes, they also have electrical properties that are fairly constant over a wide range of frequencies. These properties are little affected by temperature and atmospheric humidity in the acceptableoperating range of temperatures.[6]

ABS is flammable when it is exposed to high temperatures, such as those of a wood fire. It will melt and then boil, at which point the vapors burst into intense, hot flames. Since pure ABS contains nohalogens, its combustion does not typically produce anypersistent organic pollutants, and the most toxic products of its combustion or pyrolysis arecarbon monoxideandhydrogen cyanide.[7]ABS is also damaged by sunlight. This caused one of the most widespread and expensive automobile recalls in US history due to the degradation of the seatbelt release buttons.[8][9]

ABS can be recycled, although it is not accepted by all recycling facilities.[10][11]

ABS is derived from acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene. Acrylonitrile is a synthetic monomer produced frompropyleneandammonia; butadiene is a petroleum hydrocarbon obtained from the C4 fraction ofsteam cracking; styrene monomer is made bydehydrogenationofethyl benzene a hydrocarbon obtained in the reaction ofethyleneandbenzene.

ABS combines the strength and rigidity of acrylonitrile and styrenepolymerswith the toughness of polybutadiene rubber. While the cost of producing ABS is roughly twice the cost of producing polystyrene, it is considered superior for its hardness, gloss, toughness, and electrical insulation properties.

According to the European plastictrade associationPlasticsEurope, industrial production of 1kg (2.2lb) of ABS resin in Europe uses an average of 95.34MJ(26.48kW⋅h) and is derived fromnatural gasandpetroleum.[12][13]

ABS is easily machined. Common machining techniques include turning, drilling, milling, sawing, die-cutting and shearing. ABS can be cut with standard shop tools and line bent with standard heat strips. ABS can be chemically affixed to itself and other like-plastics.[14]

ABSs light weight and ability to beinjection moldedand extruded make it useful in manufacturing products such as drain-waste-vent (DWV)pipesystems, musical instruments (recorders, plasticclarinets, and piano movements), golf club heads (because of its goodshock absorbance), automotive trim components, automotive bumper bars, medical devices for blood access, enclosures for electrical and electronic assemblies, protectiveheadgear, whitewater canoes, buffer edging for furniture and joinery panels, luggage and protective carrying cases, small kitchen appliances, and toys, includingLegoandKre-Obricks.[15]Household and consumer goods are the major applications of ABS.[16]Keyboard keycaps are commonly made out of ABS.[17]

ABS plastic ground down to an average diameter of less than 1micrometeris used as the colorant in sometattoo inks.[18]Tattoo inks that use ABS are extremely vivid.[citation needed]

When extruded into a filament, ABS plastic is a common material used in3D printers.[19]

ABS is stable to decomposition under normal use and polymer processing conditions with exposure tocarcinogenswell below workplace exposure limits.[20]However, at higher temperatures (400 C) ABS can decompose into its constituents: butadiene (carcinogenic to humans), acrylonitrile (possibly carcinogenic to humans), and styrene.[20]

Lower temperatures have also shown thatultrafine particles(UFPs) may be produced at much lower temperatures during the 3D printing process.[21]Concerns have been raised regarding airborne UFP concentrations generated while printing with ABS, as UFPs have been linked with adverse health effects.[22]

Polylactic acid(PLA) – also used for 3D printing

May 15, 2010, at theWayback Machine. Small table of ABS properties towards the bottom. Retrieved 7 May 2010

. London: Conway.ISBN978-1-84486-107-1.

Benj EdwardsVintage Computing and Gaming Archive» Why Super Nintendos Lose Their Color: Plastic Discoloration in Classic Machines. Vintagecomputing. January 12, 2007

, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 13, 162, 242, 31,ISBN0070266816

Rutkowski, J. V.; Levin, B. C. (1986). Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers (ABS): Pyrolysis and combustion products and their toxicity?a review of the literature.

(34): 93.doi10.1002/fam.810100303.

Henshaw, J. M.; Wood, V.; Hall, A. C. (1999). Failure of automobile seat belts caused by polymer degradation.

: 13.doi10.1016/S1350-6307(98)00026-0.

Belts recalled in 8.4 million vehicles.

. Knight-Ridder News Service. May 24, 1995

ABS Recycling. Heathland B.V. Archived fromthe originalon 2014-03-06

Recycling plastic. Brisbane City Council

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer (ABS)

(Technical report). Eco-profiles of the European Plastics Industry. PlasticsEurope.

Hammond, G. P.; Jones, C. I. (2008). Embodied energy and carbon in construction materials.

(2): 87.doi10.1680/ener.2008.161.2.87.

ABS Plastic Sheet, Rod, Tube and Accessories.

ABS acrylonitrile butadiene styreneOn Designsite.dk, lists applications. Retrieved 27 October 2006.

Market Study Engineering Plastics, Ceresana, September 2013

Kennedy, C.T.C.; et al. (2010), Mechanical and Thermal Injury, in Tony Burns; et al.,

(8th ed.), Wiley-Blackwell, p.28.48

Unwin, John (2013). Airborne emissions of carcinogens and respiratory sensitizers during thermal processing of plastics.

(3): 399406.doi10.1093/annhyg/mes078PMID23091110.

Stephens, Brent (November 2013). Ultrafine particle emissions from desktop 3D printers.

: 334339.doi10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.06.050.

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