ABS 3D Printing Filament

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Our partner – Triton 3D – offers a wide array of filaments that are compatible with Stratasys® Fortus®, Dimension®, and legacy systems. These materials include Ultem®, PC, PC/ABS, ESD-Safe Materials and more. Save up to 50% or more on these materials.More Info

3DXTECH ABS 3D Printing Filament

3DXTech is proud to have a large color selection of ABS filaments to choose from. We make our ABS in the USA using only premium virgin resin and colorants.

Firewire® Flame Retardant ABS Filament

3DXSTAT™ ESD ABS 3D Printing Filament

CarbonX™ Carbon Fiber ABS 3D Printing Filament

3DXSTAT™ ESD PETG 3D Printing Filament

CarbonX™ Carbon Fiber NYLON 3D Printing Filament

CarbonX™ Carbon Fiber ABS 3D Printing Filament

3DXSTAT™ ESD ABS 3D Printing Filament

CarbonX™ Carbon Fiber PETG 3D Printing Filament

E3Dv6 Hercules™ A2 Hardened Steel Nozzle

Thermal Properties of our filaments

Tg ChartMany of you have asked for data on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of our materials. &

3D Printing ServiceWe have been printing parts for customers using many of our high-performance mate

Updated Test DataWe finally have the data back from the lab on our 3DXMAX® Carbon Fiber 3D Filaments

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COEX LLC

Run reliability and quality customer service

Focused on new capabilities and technology

Customized solutions to fit your business need

COEX COIL manufactures high-quality spiral coils and coil filament. Contact us to place an order today.

COEX 3D is dedicated to manufacturing the highest quality 3D printing materials in the industry. We are located in the heart of the Midwest in Appleton, WI, USA. We adhere to strict quality standards, ensuring optimal performance and premium resolution of all our 3D printing materials. Our advanced extrusion equipment and laser micrometers ensure quality and consistency of our 3D printer filament. We use only prime virgin resins, colorants and processing additives to ensure our customers can rely on COEX 3D filament.

COEX 3D recognizes that 3D printing innovation is constant. Thats why we take great pride in advancing 3D printer material technology through polymer science research and innovation. Our team can accommodate custom projects and work directly with customers on troubleshooting and new product development.

Plastic coil binding is a popular and inexpensive way to create beautifully finished products. At COEX COIL, we manufacture filament andplastic spiral bindingcoils in-house, offering 45 different colors and a variety of sizes. Our spiral binding material is flexible, durable and one of the most popular ways to bind documents.

Whether youre looking to place a plastic coil order or would like to purchase coil filament for your own bindery, we have the plastic coil product to meet your needs.

Use our expertise and state-of-the-art equipment to produce custom products to meet the needs of your business.

We provide 3D printer manufacturers with quality 3D printer filament to sell alongside their existing products and services.

Our firm helps organizations around the world use additive manufacturing to create efficiencies and speed up business processes.

We supply the best 3D printing materials to a network of distributors for resale to their customer base.

Coex fans, we are getting ready for our Cyber Monday sale again this year.  We will be offering 45% off all of our products offered online.  No restrictions, no limits, no kidding! Dont hesitate, you wont see filament at thisRead More

Coex fans, you asked and we have answered.  We have a new, lower cost structure on our PETG products.  You can now get a 500g spool of PETG for as low as $12.99, and 1kg spool for as low asRead More

DuPont Hytrel® Now Available Our team has partnered with the leader in plastics technology, DuPont™. With 90 years of experience behind the firm, you get the technology behind thousands of current applications, now available for FDM. You can only getRead More

Share information about your latest 3D printing project.

I printed this hand screw clamp at 350um for speed and strength. It only took 7 hours and has a pretty good build quality despite its layer height. I used a semi-transparent red, ocean blue and metallic gunmetal silver for

Check out our 3D printer filament in use in our in-house 3D printer.

From sales to shipment, we love working with the COEX team!  Not only do they produce consistent, high-quality filament, their team is super flexible and willing to take on all of our requests. Matt F.

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83-year-old inventor wins $40000 award for his DIY filament extruder

On March 2, 2013 Zach Kaplan, CEO of online store Inventables, presents a giant check to inventor and competition winner Hugh Lyman.

Inventables, the Kauffman Foundation and Maker Faire announced in May 2012 the launch ofThe Desktop Factory Competition- each team is required to design an open source machine capable of making plastic resin pellets fit for use in a low cost 3D printer.

The purpose of this competition is to drive down the cost of filament by creating a new filament extruder. Currently the cost of plastic filament is $30~50/kg, by creating such a new machine the organizers seek to make the filament price drop to around $5.

The first one who uploads a solution will be the winner -The first team/person to build an open source filament extruder for less than $250 in components can take ABS or PLA resin pellets, mix them with colorant, and extrude a 1.75mm +/- .01mm filament that can be used in a 3D printer is declared the winner.

The Reward – The winning team will receive $40,000 from the Kauffman Foundation and a Desktop Fabrication Lab (a 3D printer, an FS Laser Cutter, and a Shapeoko CNC Mill).

The winner here is 83-year-old Hugh Lyman, an engineer, inventor, fisherman and golfer from Enumclaw, Washington. Hugh Lyman holds eight patents and has been building quite a few low-cost desktop 3D printers and printing things for family and friends, as well parts for his inventions.

When Lyman heard about the Desktop Factory Competition, he was instantly intrigued, in part because hed benefit if the problem it set out to address was solved. Every time I buy a couple of pounds of filament, it costs me forty to fifty bucks, he explains. I was burning through it pretty fast. He also shared the contest organizers vision of pervasive, democratized manufacturing: I would think that at least half the homes in the world will eventually have a 3D printer.

Lyman entered the Lyman Filament Extruder in the contest in Aug.2012 but was disqualified because the budget exceeded the $250 limit. So he modified the design and came up with the second version: the Lyman Filament Extruder II. Its my first machine with a few little parts changed, he says. I resubmitted it, and it worked. It worked great. The judges agreed and declared him as the winner.

The Lyman Filament Extruder II is a machine that extrudes filament from pellets for use in a 3D Printer. It features more metal parts than the previous version. It extrudes different filament diameters depending on the nozzle hole size. With this home-made filament extruder, you can save 80% on the material costs. A spool of plastic filament costs $50/kg, and buying a kilogram of pellets and extruding your own filament will cost you only about $10. And if you buy 25 kilograms of pellets in bulk, you only need to pay $5 for each kilogram.

Lymans invention is open source for anyone to use and build, and it could benefit a whole 3D printing community. HisFilament Extruderhas been downloaded 10608 times, and 1563 people have downloaded theversion 2.

Another Thingiverse userbottleworks made his version of the Lyman Filament Extruder with larger hot end, automatic timing system, fan ducting, modified sprokets and hopper and adjustable motor speed on the control panel, and has been downloaded 7404 times.

And for the future, Lyman plans to continue to do new things himself: Hes at work on a third-generation extruder. As for his $40,000 award, Lyman says: Im going to give half of it to the wife, and tinker with the other half.

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Larson wrote at 11/15/2014 1:30:08 AM:

Surprised he got the money wrote at 6/29/2014 5:10:21 AM:

have you seen what his version 4.1 comes out to costing? around 850 bucks! seems like the 250 dollar marks passed a long time ago.

Kevin wrote at 3/28/2013 4:22:49 AM:

I think this is BS. He made a machine that was a carbon copy of machines that were built years ago, and the mix them with colorant, clause has been completely ignored.

3Ders.org provides the latest news about 3D printing technology and 3D printers. We are now six years old and have around 1.5 million unique visitors per month.

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How to Store 3D Printing Filament A Simple and Cheap Way to Keep Your Filament Dry

How to Store 3D Printing Filament A Simple and Cheap Way to Keep Your Filament Dry

How to Store 3D Printing Filament A Simple and Cheap Way to Keep Your Filament Dry

Did you know that some of your 3D prints may have partially or completely failed just because of humidity contained in the filament you used? This sort of humidity is invisible to the naked eye, so you probably blamed your print settings, your 3D printer or even doubted your abilities, but all of that may actually not have been the cause of your problem: it was the humid filament.

Some people tried to address this problem by creating more or less elaborate 3D filament storage solutions, like filament driers or special filament containers. The problem is that most are either bulky, energy consuming and/or slow, they come at a certain price or constructing them takes a lot of your time.

Well, we may have just the solution for you: a very simple and cheap way to store your filament without hassle. Your filament will not only stay completely dry, it will be easily accessible, perfectly identifiable (i.e. no need to open every box to find the right kind of filament your are looking for) and it uses humidity absorbents which can be reused indefinitely. If this has peeked your interest, read on.

Your failed 3D prints could well be due to humidity contained in your filament

If you have your filament spools simply lying around your printer until you use them, without any storage solution in place, you will sooner rather then later witness problems during printing, due to humidity. Your filament has an inherent quality that will make it attract water molecules its surroundings (i.e. the ambient air), known as hygroscopy.

As we already briefly explained inthis article, nylons will saturate with water (i.e. absorb its maximal capacity in water molecules) in only 18 hours being exposed to ambient air. The situation is even worse with specialty filament likePVA(more aboutPVAin ourmaterials primer post) which is used to create support structures, which are easily dissolved by putting your print in water. PVA is extremely hygroscopic and needs to be stored in a sealed box or a special container. Otherwise, it will attract so much water from the air that it will render it useless. But not only nylons or PVA are concerned,PLAandABSalso attract water from the air, even if it is to a lesser degree.

The effects of attracting water may result in one or more of the following problems: increased brittleness, diameter augmentation (potential problems with Bowden-tube printers), filament bubbling or hissing steam once reaching the hot-end, filament degradation, breaking filament, etc. which will all lead to increased complications during printing. You also need to factor in the fact that 3D printing filament which has absorbed water will need a higher temperature for extruding correctly.

The level of severity of these problems depends strongly on the type of filament. For instance, PET is nearly not affected by ambient air moisture while Nylon will saturate quite quickly and may pose problems printing (making bubbles for example), if not stored properly.

Not the best long term storage solution for 3D printer filament

The Maker community came up with some very innovative ways, in order to find a solution to this recurring problem. Some makers set out to build a filament dryer and storage containers like this Moisture-free filament spool container, this Multiple Filament Dry Holder and Dispenser or this Solution for printing with water soluble PVA in Dualstrusion, but you probably will have to go through different iterations in your designs, before you will be happy with your result. Also, there is always a certain cost involved.

Alternatively, you can check out the solutions elaborated by our good friend Jrmie Franois. He tried out several systems in his article onprinting nylon(a recommended read) and his iteration of ahigh-tech zero carbon footprint drier box. Unfortunately, not everyone is living in beautiful southern France with accordingly good weather (i.e. lots of sun) in order to use such a drier box. Or you simply dont want to tinker with such a (quite elaborate) setup.

The home-made solar dehydrator by Jrmie Franois

But dont worry, we came up with a very simple, yet effective and very cheap solution.

Just get yourself somevacuum bags. Please do pay attention to only buy the type of bags fitted with a vacuum valve, which permit all air to be vacuumed out with a standard household vacuum cleaner. These vacuum bags are normally intended for storing clothes, linen and such in a place-efficient manner. They normally also provide protection against water, odors, mildew, dust and pests.

You need to be careful, as you can also find vacuum bags which are normally intended for traveling (i.e. storing clothes in a space-efficient manner in your suitcase). Those use integrated one-way air valves and need to be rolled manually (compressed) in order to let the air out. Sometimes you can find them tagged ascompression bags. Pay attention not to buy those as they are not fit for our specific purpose!

Also, only buy vacuum bags with a double zipper line, as they permit to keep the vacuum better then the simple zipper lined ones. The better ones cost about 20 EUR (about 25 $) for 6 bags. One such pack will normally be more than sufficient for your filament storing needs. We strongly urge you to consider buying only the higher quality bags, as their valves are normally better, the plastics used are of higher quality (less prone to cracking over time) and thicker (less danger of a puncture).

Four filament spools and a moisture absorber packed together tightly in a vacuum bag

As for size, the choice is up to you, but in order to keep your stored filament manageable, we prefer bags of 50 x 60cm or so (i.e. 19.6 to 23.6 inches). Normally those bags are transparent, so you can easily recognize what filament you have stored in a specific bag. Clear and comprehensive tagging of your filament will also help a lot in that respect.

Pro tip: Once most of the air has been vacuumed out of the bags, you can easily and place-efficiently stack your spool bags or even store them vertically in a box or cupboard until you need them.

Simply vacuum out the air, so to remove all the ambient moisture too

The idea behind using those bags is to store your filament spools in an air-free environment (vacuum), so that they cannot absorb any more moisture from the ambient air. As the vacuum in the bag is not absolute, you need a solution to absorb any possible remaining moisture. We recommend to simply add to your bag some silicagel beads, which are very effective moisture absorbents. You can choose to either buy a number ofready-to-use silicagel packs(a.k.a. dry packs), which can be re-used if you dry them in an oven. However, their biggest disadvantage is that you have no way of knowing when the beads are saturated with water, as the (Tyvek) bags they come in are opaque/non-transparent. It is also sometimes difficult to buy them in small numbers at an acceptable price.

Once the air has been vacuumed out, you can conveniently store your filament spools completely dry until you need them

We actually prefer a much smarter solution, as we usesilicagel with moisture saturation indicator. This amorphous, highly porous, synthetically manufactured silicagel uses an ecologically friendly color indicator, so that when the beads absorb moisture, they change their color from yellow/orange to green or blue (depending on ambient moisture level). The beads normally only become blue if they have been soaked in water (i.e. in contact with water) we use the photos of the blue silica gel for illustration purposes only of this article. Your DIY moisture saturation indicator should only become green, never blue! Used together with some type of slotted box with transparent walls, you can easily determine if the time has come to renew your silica beads.

There are a few of these m
oisture indicator silicagel types out there. Beware and do not buy the cheap ones which change from dark blue (dry) to pink (saturated), as they usually do contain cobalt chloride, a product which has been linked as being possibly carcinogenic to humans and has been labeled as hazardous material in some countries. We are no chemists, but apparently the color indicator in the orange to green changing silicagel beads is a kind of composite dyeing agent and a lot safer to use then the cobalt chloride ones.

EDIT:Since the publication of this article, we have received number of mails, asking us if you can replace the silicagel with rice instead. Rice is cheap and readily available and yes, it does present hygroscopic properties. But we advise against using rice as a desiccant, as its adsorption properties cannot be compared to those of industrially produced silicagel. If you compare rice to silicagel, you can say that rice is maybe a mild/weak desiccant. If you would like your filaments to be dried and stored under the most effective conditions, use silicagel.

The only thing missing now is the appropriate container to put your silicagel beads in. Any transparent vessel with small holes, slots or incisions will do the trick. These are necessary so that the silicagel beads can attract the remaining moisture left in the vacuum bag. As seen before, some ready made solutions do exist, but thosedry-packsseem to be only available in the US at the time of this writing. So, as true makers, we decided to 3D print us the vessel we need for our little project. You can use this design of adesiccant boxwhich you can resize as needed and then 3D print it yourself.

Alternatively, get yourself some plastic containers with a screw lid, like those Polypropylene containers (slightly soft-walled) of 50ml which are frequently used by labs or for storage (coins, screws, etc.), which you can order on eBay or Amazon. Alternatively, search for small plastic jars with cap/lids or coin storage containers. To get a better idea of what I am talking about, just have a look at our photos below. Take out your drill (I used a 2mm drill for wood, as they are very sharp and perfectly suited for this) and add a good number of holes to the container, so that the beads can easily absorb any remaining moisture. Then you just need to fill in your beads and, voila, you have a moisture absorption system with water saturation indicator.

Once your beads change from orange to green(ish), depending on the moisture level (the vacuum bags and the bead container being transparent, it should be easy for you to check the saturation level), just take them out of your container, put them on a baking tray and let them dry for 3 hours at 120C in your oven (some types may be also microwaveable, but we do not recommend this). Once they are of a clear orange color again, all moisture has been dried out of the beads and they are ready to be used again.

The 3 possible states of the silica gel: yellow (dry), green (wet, needs replacement) and blue (saturated with water). It will only become blue if submerged in water you need to change your beads once they are greenish!

If your filament spools have already been exposed to the air over a certain time, they will most likely aready be saturated with moisture. If you wish not to change the silicagel too quickly or too often, you can trydrying it in an ovenfirst. But you need to be aware that this may create problems, especially if you are drying at too high temperatures, as thefilament may become soft, sticky or may even start fusing single strands together in one big mess. Do not try to shorten the cure time with a higher temperature setting!

There are no specific recommendations we can give you here for ovencuring your filament, as these settings depend on the nature of thethermoplasticyou are trying to dry. As a rule of thumb, use a convection oven (i.e. a fan-assisted oven), where fans distribute the air evenly throughout the oven. Your heat settings should be low to very low. Just consider curing PLA, which has a so-called glass transition temperature of 60-65C. This means that the PLAs properties will change from hard and brittle to soft, molten or rubber-like as soon as your ovens temp reaches 60C! So PLA is not really a good candidate for oven curing, unless you have a very precise (i.e. digital) oven. Also, we never cure our filament for longer than one hour, as the silicagel in the vacuum bag will take care of any remaining moisture.

Please make sure that you always check theglass transistion temperatureson your filaments, as they do vary widely: ABS is around 100C, Taulmans T-glase is around 78C, Polycarbonate around 150C and so on. Make sure that you research your filaments specifications properly before trying this out. And as usual, all the above is for information purposes only. Should you ruin your oven or loose a spool while trying to dry your filament, dont blame us, as we warned you properly about this methods inherent risks and dangers.

One last piece of advice: sometimes the filament, once you have finished printing with it and have pulled it out from the heat chamber (and Bowden-tube, if applicable), can form a spike or be kind of sharp. However, sharp spikes together with thin walled plastic bags do not mix well, as avacuum bagis quickly pierced by a sharp tip. So we recommend to print some filament clips (many are to be found on Thingiverse), so that unraveling, entanglement and especially spikey ends do not pose any problems. Personally, we preferthis design.

Using a filament clip to keep the filament secured on the spool

We hope that this little instruction will help you keep your filament dry in the future. Happy printing!

EDIT:We have received a lot of fan-mail from our readers, requesting us to publish an easier method for storing 3D printing filament without involving any do-it-yourself action. Socheck out our new and revised method for filament storagethat gets rid of any DIY-action and that can be implemented in a few, easy-to-follow steps by absolutely everyone

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Thanks for your tips. I found here some useful advices. You are truly know what are you writing about. Keep doing that! Its a good job.

Thanks for the feedback. Check back regularly, we have more great content coming soon!

If you use a non color change desiccant, you can get small litmus strip indicators that change color to indicate the relative humidity in the container. I have been using them for decades with straight Silica Gel in humidity sensitive lab equipment, and they are a lot cheaper than the color changing desiccant.

My source is and you can buy them in 10 packs.

As for regenerating silica gel, the technique I have used is to spread it evenly in a shallow baking pan and heat it to 250 degrees F for 4 hours, returning it to the storage container while still hot. (I keep mine in Mason Jars)

Thanks for this excellent tip. I did not think of the litmus strips in order to indicate humidity, but that has to work well too.

As for the regeneration of the silica gel in the pan, I had some of the silica beads cracking up from the heat thats why I prefer the oven (easier to control for me). But I guess this comes down to personal preferences.

Anyway, thanks for taking the time to comment and thanks for these excellent suggestions.

Dont have a 3d printer yet, but having read a few of your articles, Im finally feeling confident enough about making informed decisions toward that end.

Theres plenty of info out there on 3d printing, but this site definitely boasts the most accessible stuff Ive seen!

Thanks alot, Im gonna continue devouring these delicious nuggets of know-how 😉

Thanks for taking the time to comment. I am very happy to read that we may have helped you make a decision to finally get a 3D printer. There are so many 3D printer models out there right now so that even for us, who are reviewing them, it can sometimes be d
ifficult to choose. Actually, it all comes down to what exactly you are planning to with your 3D printer. Well, if you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Also, thanks for your kind words on our site and our work. We try our utmost to explain this sometimes dry and/or complicated information in the easiest and most accessible way, so that it can be understood by beginners, but also be used by advanced users. Comments like yours are what keeps us going!

So thanks to you too! We are happy to count you among our loyal readers.

I have the opposite problem, it seems my filament is too dry, it keeps breaking over and over and I cant complete any printing anymore. Is that possible?

What filament type are you talking about? PLA? ABS?

When you are working for instance with Laywood (or similar wood-based filaments), Laybrick (chalk-like filament) and carbon-fibre infused filaments, you need to know that those may be quite prone to breaking. But with other types (ABS, PLA, nylon, HIPS, polycarbonate, etc.) that should not happen.

Please explain whether you bought branded filament or quite cheap filament quality can make a huge difference. Once Ive got your answers, I might be able to help you a little further.

Also, when exactly does it break? When you are trying for feed it into the extruder?

Getting an issues with the moisture content in the filaments.. just wanted to store the filaments in a oven to make it dry.. so could you suspect How long should i keep the filaments in any oven to dry and to get better quality.. for both PLA and ABS filament materials..

If I understand you well, you do experience issues with moisture in your filaments. And you are not sure how long to dry them in the oven?

I cant really tell you how long to bake the filaments in your oven, as it first depends on the type of filament your are using for 3D printing. As described in the article, you need to differentiate between PLA and ABS, as both materials have different properties. And it will also depend on your specific brand of filaments properties. You will need to check your filament manufacturers indications for their glass transistion temperature.

PLA normally becomes soft if heated over 60C, so if you got a very precise fan-assisted oven, set it to no more than 50C and let if cure for 30 minutes and try it out. Make a test print with your cured filament. If thats not enough (i.e. you still got hissing or water bubbles forming at your 3D printers hot-end), do cure it for another 30 minutes. And dont be tempted to put a higher temperature, in order to save time the filament will melt or at least bake together the individual filament strands, making it unusable.

For ABS, you should not use temperatures for oven-curing over 90C, as it normally starts to soften around 100C. As for time in the oven, I would advise a cautionary 30 minutes and then test it, as for PLA.

As you see, there is no general formula and you will need to test around a bit for yourself, to find the best temperatures and curing times.

Hi. I have another suggestion. Have you heard of something called food Saver bags and vacuum device. Used for storing food in freezers for long duration. You usually buy the bags in a continuous roll. You cut off enough bag from the roll and use the vacuums heat sealing to seal one end then place what you wish to store in the bag and place the open end of the bag in the vac unit. Turn it on and all air is removed and sealing the open end takes place automatically. Maybe cut enough bag to store 2 spools plus enough extra to make up for each time you wish to remove a spool by cutting the sealed bag at one end. Recommend extra say double the length of the bag I got mine through Dan Ozz but they are now available in most department stores. Buy the bigger size machines and the wider bag rolls. Cheers, Ian

Thanks for sharing your filament storage technique. This sounds like another good way to properly store filament, especially since you get a perfect vacuum. I am just wondering how much you paid for the vacuum device?

Hi William. Cant remember what I paid. The first one I had to throw out due to a mouse plague. I couldnt even look at it anymore. I just purchased a Sunbeam Fully automatic for $349au after reading your article, but I did a google on them and found them as low as $129. There are 2 sizes 28cm and 22 cm machines. I opted for the 28 cm machine. My new 3d printer arrived today A Creatbot DX2 300 x 250 x 300 mm volume. Good solid build. Thank you so much for taking the time to publish this article, keep up the good work, cheers, Ian

PS. I would still reccomend using some sort of silica gell pellets in a container you described in the vac bag. Cheers

ganz interessanten Artikel, lo huet e bei geleiert. Thanks

Merci vir deen ënnerstetzenden Kommentar, daat ass apprciiert! Ech fannen et gudd, dat och mol mi Lëtzebuerger am 3D printing Domain aktiv sin! Sidd Dir schons mi laang mat derbai?

3Wochen , de Plang an den Obbau sin am Kapp, en Rumba Board leit schon hei, an ech sin amgangen mech do eran ze schaffen.

Virun 5Joer hun ech emol schons eng CnC Portal-Fräs gebaut, mee ed ass hei e bessi aneschtmee ed misst klappen .

P.S. iwregens eng flott Seitoch wann ech muss heiansdo alles 5 mol liesen.zu menger Zeit haat ech leider ken englesch an der Schoulmee ed klappt.

Hu mer di Photoen mol ugekuckt, ech sin impressionniert. Also, wann Dir di CNC-Fräs do färdeg brengt, dann dierf 3D printing weider kee Problem sin.

Et ass manner kompliziert an dPrinzipien sin basesch gesin di selwecht. Waat vir e Printer baut Dir do?

Merci vir de Luew. Mir stinn Iech awer och gären mat Root an Doot zur Verfgung, och wann daat Englescht e bessen schwier dierft sin

Schreift einfach op mich[at]onsen Domainnumm, do lisst et sech och besser diskutieren wi um öffentlechen Deel hei vum Site.

Will ABS, PLA, Nylon, etc. filaments be damaged by freezing? I need to find a new home for my filament and the best location other than my house is in our attached garage which may reach -10 to -15C (14 to 5F) in winter. Obviously they would be brittle when frozen but after they were thawed would they be the same as prior to freezing? I have a feeling they will all be fine but dont want to risk more than $1,000 worth of plastic without having input on the idea. Thanks.

I must admit, that is one question that I have neither asked myself. Also, I have never tested the hypothesis of frozen filament.

I would avise you to write directly to your filament manufacturer who can certainly help you better than I could.

Although, now that you have asked the question, I am putting it onto my to-do list, as I am quite intrigued by the question myself.

And if I test it, Ill write up about it.

Condensation on removal would be the issue. If you stored them in vacuum bags (foodsaver, not clothes ones) at room temp, stored them, they would be fine as long as you let them come up to room temp before opening the bags.

Make sure they are fully warmed up before opening the bags, or moisture from the air will condense directly onto the surface of the filament.

As to the physical properties of PLA/ABS itself changing on temp shifts, no idea. Try it out and tell us the results!

Well, I have been tearing my hair out over my new CreatBot 3D printer with models not sticking to print bed. The general concensus was the bed temp for ABS is 45c. Read the CreatBot pdf manual and it stated 90c bed temp and fully enclosed. Performed a new bed leveling with feeler guage and upped the bed temp to 90c and Wallah Perfect print out. I had the same problem with PETG plastic. Recomended temps 215c 220c nozzle and 65c bed temp. Does anyone have other temps I should try for PET plastic filament?

A reusable dehumidifier is loads better then getting the beads on there own.

Once it shows color that means the beads are full you plug in to a power point and it heats up and brings the beads back to new.

This is the one i use in my filament box and gun safe.

You are right, this is another viable option. In fact, the wireless dehumidifier popped up in our list of best selling 3D printing accessories, see here:

Worth noting you can put the silica packs in the oven and theyll return to like-new status for reuse.

The YouTube channel AppliedScience has a video on doing this.

You are right Kyle, silica gel packs can be dried in the oven to make them fit for re-use. Thanks for pointing that out.

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byJoris PeelsOct 6, 20173D Printing3D Printing MaterialsBusinessPopular Stories

A  PCL (polycaprolactone) brace. [Image courtesy of 3D4 Makers]Flexible 3D printed materials have a lot to offer us. Rather than just make rigid things, flexible materials can let us make wearables, shoe soles, clothing and other things such as buttons. Flexible materials such as FlexPLA, Polycaprolactone and some Nylons have been used. Most popular on the desktop are TPUs (Thermoplastic polyurethane, which may be called TPE depending on where you live). These thermoplastic elastomers are very tough and flexible and have been pioneered through Ninjaflex and Filaflex. These kinds of 3D printing materials have been used for slippers, orthotics and many soft things. Flexible materials and structures greatly expand the realm of the makeable with desktop 3D printers.

For many desktop 3D printers, flexible materials pose a problem, however. Bowden tube based systems have a lot of difficulty printing flexible materials. TPUs tend to get stuck or not be able to be pressed through the Bowden tubes for example. Removing the Bowden tube or replacing it may be a way around this. You can also try to put oil in your Bowden tube (which sucks, dont do it). Having an extruder on your print head pulling the filament through instead of pushing it from the back also solves the problem. These direct drive extruders which are close to or on the print head itself ameliorate this issue while typically they make your printer a bit slower. Direct Drive also may lack accuracy to a certain extent but suffer less from under extrusion. With flexibles, however, most Bowden based systems will tend to have issues but can be upgraded with specific extruders for flexibles.BondtechandRecreushave extruder upgrades for bowdens.Gyrobot, the number one expert on flexible 3D printing materials, has an excellent guide on how to 3D print flexible filaments.

A form fitting variable density insole developed by Steve Wood, better known as Gyrobot.

For most people, however, flexible materials are a part of their repertoire, not something they want to spend all of their time on. For most people the annoyance of printing flexible materials is simply too much or they dont see a need to stray from the rigid materials. For those of us who want to stick to regular filament and have difficulties extruding flexible filaments, Ben Kromhout and Lukas Lambrichts illustrate some other possibilities. They designed patterns that let you make flexible structures with regular PLA. By developing specific patterns one could make objects flexible in predetermined ways. Variations in pattern could make a product deform in one way only for example or deform in one particular area much more so than in others.

TPEs (Thermoplastic Elastomers) are a more well worn path towards flexible materials. There are different types of these materials; some of them are styrene block copolymers (SBCs) but others can be thermoplastic vulcanized rubbers (TPV) or copolyester elastomers (COPE). TPU is one thermoplastic elastomer which is a block copolymer made from polyurethane (ester or ether). TPE and TPU as terms are widely used interchangeably even though TPE is actually a much wider group of materials. The term elastomer is also sometimes generally used and this is just any polymer that is elastic.

Thermoplastic Elastomers and TPUs are very popular bulk plastics. You could find varying TPEs in your shoes, roof, window frames or car. The TPE group is widespread with lots of materials used in it for the core compounds as well as in fillers. Some of these materials contain styrene and many harmful chemicals. Others have been certified safe in many applications. Generally many TPU materials are unsafe when burned and emit toxic fumes when burned. Polyurethanes themselves, however, are also comprised of a wide group of materials with differing safety and toxicity levels.

Due to the nomenclature confusion and the widely differing varieties of these materials, I would recommend extreme caution when printing with or using something that is only generally identified as a TPE or TPU because it could be just about anything. Generally with any material I would recommend a fume hood or enclosure (Yes, just because its PLA doesnt mean it is safe). If we compare it to types of food, then saying PLA would be akin to saying, this is tomato soup. You can still put a lot of stuff in tomato soup, including poison and it would still be tomato soup. If you have a nut allergy then tomato soup could still kill you because someone could have put nuts in it. There are lots of different tomato soups and all contain tomatoes but they may contain much else besides. Saying that something is a TPU would be like identifying it as a soup. There could be just about anything in it, but we would expect bouillon and perhaps a vegetable. Saying something is a TPE is similar to identifying something as a hot food. Generally, however, these materials have high abrasion resistance and elasticity.

A popular polyurethane-based TPE for 3D printing is Recreus Filaflex. Filaflex is tough and probably has the strongest part strength of the TPEs used for 3D printing. The company is also working on its own hot ends and extruders to make it easier to 3D print their materials.NinjaTeksNinjaflex is an alternative TPU material developed by parent companyFenner Drives. They also have Cheetah. This material has been optimized to print much faster and much more easily on many different desktop machines. 3D printer companies have now also come out with their own TPUs, withAirwolfreleasing Wolfbend TPU filament.Taulmanhas a Plasticized Copolyamide TPE, which has been optimized to print easier than other TPEs.

Copolymers are in the COPE TPE group and consist of materials such as ABS, SBR (Styrene Butadene Rubber), polystyrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and HIPS. For most of these materials, caution is suggested since styrene and other fumes might emerge. Also these materials are also often just called a copolymer which may refer to many different materials. So your copolymer is like a box of chocolates, you never know what youre going to get. Materials such as Bendlay are made to be easier to process than ABS and with less warping.

A copolyester is a modified polyester. You can for example add my favorite Scrabble word: Cyclohexanedimethanol and ethylene glycol to terephthalic acid to get what is a much more pronounceable PETG. PETGs such ascolorFabbNgen Flex mimic Flex PLA in being easier to print and more rigid while having flexible properties. Meanwhile, generally PETGs have good chemical resistance. PETG materials are made by lots of companies and have differing formulations to be competitive with each other.

PCL (polycaprolactone) is a very tough flexible bioabsorbable, biodegradable and compostable material. PCL prints at 120 degrees, much lower than we normally 3D print things. It will require extra model cooling to print well also. The Tg is low compared to other materials and the material can be heat set. This means that it can be printed flat for example and then heated to be formed on your body for a form fitting medical brace. Although it is very flexible, PCL is mainly used for 3D printing things such as scaffolds, trachea and drug loaded bioabsorbable implants (Disclosure: I work for3D4Makerswhich makes PCL filament).

Flex PLA filaments are filaments that are mainly comprised of PLA but have added fillers and plasticizers to make them more flexible. Generally much easier to print than TPE/TPUs, these materials are also harder and not as flexible. Whereas the TPE/TPU materials easily find their original forms
, this may be limited with Flex PLAs. Flex PLA tend to have less chemical and abrasion resistance and will typically be less soft. If you need something to be stretchy or very soft then the TPUs will tend to be better for you. If you have a Bowden setup, however, then these materials will be far easier to print. With Flex PLAs you can use variations in infill structure and percentage to increase and decrease your flexibility, similar to what was done with regular PLA above. It is difficult to say anything about the properties of these materials and their safety since it is such a general term. Depending on the material, it could be any kind of filler or material mixed in with PLA to any degree.

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PLA 3D Filament – Made by eSunDiameter Filament : 1,75 mm

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ABS Plus Advantages: Tougher. Much less warp — about 0.4% versus regular ABS over 8%. Smoother printouts. The sacrifice made is that ABS+ is less dissolvable to Acetone bath than regular ABS. So if you must use Acetone bath, you might stay with regular ABS.

EAL Aluminum 3D FilamentAluminum filament adalah 3D printer filament yang memiliki kareteristik warna & hasil mirip Aluminum.

Advanced formula.  Superior than all PLA on market. The newly added mixes are also bio-polyesters and the the PLA+ is still 100% biodegradeable.

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ABS Plus Advantages: Tougher. Much less warp — about 0.4% versus regular ABS over 8%. Smoother printouts. The sacrifice made is that ABS+ is less dissolvable to Acetone bath than regular ABS. So if you must use Acetone bath, you might stay with regular ABS.

Wood 3D FilamentWood filament adalah 3D printer filament yang memiliki kareteristik warna & hasil seperti kayu.

Polymorph / Thermomorph / Instamorph / Plastimake / Plastic Morph / Friendly Plastic adalah polimer thermoplastik yang mudah digunakan yang dapat Anda bentuk dengan tangan Anda. Membuat barang-barang plastik yang kuat dalam hitungan menit, tidak ada alat khusus yang diperlukan. Sempurna untuk DIY proyek, perbaikan, kostum, kerajinan, prototipe dll.

Cleaning 3D FilamentCleaning filament adalah 3D printer filament yang memiliki fungsi sebagai pembersih Nozzle 3D Printer anda

ePA – Nylon filamentUL94: V-2 levels

ABS Plus 2.85 (3) mm Advantages: Tougher. Much less warp — about 0.4% versus regular ABS over 8%. Smoother printouts. The sacrifice made is that ABS+ is less dissolvable to Acetone bath than regular ABS. So if you must use Acetone bath, you might stay with regular ABS.

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Rapid prototyping

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Not to be confused withDigital prototyping.

This article is about rapid prototyping of physical objects. For rapid software prototyping, seerapid application development.

A rapid prototyping machine usingselective laser sintering(SLS)

Rapid prototypingis a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensionalcomputer aided designCAD) data.[1][2]Construction of the part or assembly is usually done using3D printingoradditive layer manufacturingtechnology.[3]

The first methods for rapid prototyping became available in the late 1980s and were used to producemodelsandprototypeparts. Today, they are used for a wide range of applications[4]and are used tomanufactureproduction-quality parts in relatively small numbers if desired without the typical unfavorable short-run economics. This economy has encouraged online service bureaus. Historical surveys of RP technology[2]start with discussions of simulacra production techniques used by 19th-century sculptors. Some modernsculptorsuse the progeny technology to produceexhibitions.[5]The ability to reproduce designs from a dataset has given rise to issues of rights, as it is now possible to interpolate volumetric data from one-dimensional images.

As with, the computer-aided-design computer-aided manufacturingCADCAMworkflow in the traditional Rapid Prototyping process starts with the creation of geometric data, either as a 3D solid using a CAD workstation, or 2D slices using a scanning device. For Rapid prototyping this data must represent a valid geometric model; namely, one whose boundary surfaces enclose a finite volume, contain no holes exposing the interior, and do not fold back on themselves. In other words, the object must have an inside. The model is valid if for each point in 3D space the computer can determine uniquely whether that point lies inside, on, or outside the boundary surface of the model. CAD post-processors will approximate the application vendors internal CAD geometric forms (e.g., B-splines) with a simplified mathematical form, which in turn is expressed in a specified data format which is a common feature inadditive manufacturing: STL (stereolithography) a de facto standard for transferring solid geometric models to SFF machines. To obtain the necessary motion control trajectories to drive the actual SFF, rapid prototyping,3D printingoradditive manufacturing mechanism, the prepared geometric model is typically sliced into layers, and the slices are scanned into lines (producing a 2D drawing used to generate trajectory as inCNCs toolpath), mimicking in reverse the layer-to-layer physical building process.

Electric carscan be built and tested in one year with3D production systems.[6]

Rapid prototyping is commonly applied in software engineering to try out new business models and application architectures.[7]

In the 1970s,Joseph Henry Condonand others atBell Labsdeveloped theUnix Circuit Design System(UCDS), automating the laborious and error-prone task of manually converting drawings to fabricate circuit boards for the purposes of research and development.

In the year 1980s U.S. policy makers and industrial managers were forced to take note that Americas dominance in the field of machine tool manufacturing evaporated, in what was named the machine tool crisis. Numerous projects sought to counter these trends in the traditionalarea, which had begun in the US. Later when Rapid Prototyping Systems moved out of labs to be commercialized, it was recognized that developments were already international and U.S. rapid prototyping companies would not have the luxury of letting a lead slip away. TheNational Science Foundationwas an umbrella for theNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA), theUS Department of Energy, the, theUS Department of DefenseDefense Advanced Research Projects AgencyDARPA), and theOffice of Naval Researchcoordinated studies to inform strategic planners in their deliberations. One such report was the 1997Rapid Prototyping in Europe and Japan Panel Report[2]in which Joseph J. Beaman[8]founder of DTM Corporation [DTM RapidTool pictured] provides a historical perspective:

The roots of rapid prototyping technology can be traced to practices in topography and photosculpture. Within TOPOGRAPHY Blanther (1892) suggested a layered method for making a mold for raised relief paper topographical maps .The process involved cutting the contour lines on a series of plates which were then stacked. Matsubara (1974) ofMitsubishiproposed a topographical process with a photo-hardeningphotopolymerresin to form thin layers stacked to make a casting mold. PHOTOSCULPTURE was a 19th-century technique to create exact three-dimensional replicas of objects. Most famouslyFrancois Willeme(1860) placed 24 cameras in a circular array and simultaneously photographed an object. The silhouette of each photograph was then used to carve a replica. Morioka (1935, 1944) developed a hybridphoto sculptureand topographic process using structured light to photographically create contour lines of an object.The lines could then be developed into sheets and cut and stacked, or projected onto stock material for carving. The Munz(1956) Process reproduced a three-dimensional image of an object by selectively exposing, layer by layer, a photo emulsion on a lowering piston. Afterfixing, a solid transparent cylinder contains an image of the object.

The technologies referred to as Solid Freeform Fabrication are what we recognize today as rapid prototyping, 3D printing oradditive manufacturing: Swainson (1977), Schwerzel (1984) worked onpolymerizationof a photosensitive polymer at the intersection of two computer controlledlaser beams. Ciraud (1972) consideredmagnetostaticorelectrostaticdeposition withelectron beamlaserorplasmafor sintered surface cladding. These were all proposed but it is unknown if working machines were built. Hideo Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute was the first to publish an account of a solid model fabricated using a photopolymer rapid prototyping system (1981).[2]Even at that early date the technology was seen as having a place in manufacturing practice. A low resolution, low strength output had value in design verification, mould making, production jigs and other areas. Outputs have steadily advanced toward higher specification uses.[10]

Innovations are constantly being sought, to improve speed and the ability to cope with mass production applications.[11]A dramatic development which RP shares with relatedCNCareas is the freeware open-sourcing of high level applications which constitute an entireCADCAMtoolchain. This has created a community of low res device manufacturers. Hobbyists have even made forays into more demanding laser-effected device designs.[12]

Ballistic particle manufacturing(BPM)

Direct-shell production casting(DSPC)

Laminated object manufacturing(LOM)

Shape deposition manufacturing(SDM) (andMold SDM)

eFunda, Inc.Rapid Prototyping: An Overview.

Interview with Dr Greg Gibbons, Additive Manufacturing, WMG, University of Warwick, Warwick University, KnowledgeCentre. Accessed 18 October 2013

medical applications of rapid prototyping intech open books

sculpture exhibition School of the Art Institute of Chicago

Revolutionary New Electric Car Built and Tested in One Year with Objet1000 Multi-material 3D Production System

Haberle, T. (201x).The Connected Car in the Cloud: A Platform for Prototyping Telematics Services.

JTEC/WTEC Panel Report on Rapid Prototyping in Europe and Japan pg.24

Hayes, Jonathan (2002) Concurrent printing and thermographing for rapid manufacturing: executive summary. EngD thesis, University of Warwick.. Accessed 18 October 2013

Will 3D Printing Push Past the Hobbyist Market?, Fiscal Times, 2 September 2013. Accessed 18 October 2013

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