How Toxic Are ABS PLA Fumes? 3Dsafetyorg Examines VOCs

How Toxic Are ABS & PLA Fumes? Examines VOCs

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How Toxic Are ABS & PLA Fumes? 3Dsafety.org Examines VOCs

While everyone knows the unpleasant odor from ABS cannot possibly be healthy to breathe in, most of us generally do not really care. However, not only ABS, but also PLA, may release toxic fumes known as VOCs (Volatile Organic Carbon). Not all VOCs are actually toxic, but some may be, especially for younger users. Before this becomes a serious health issue, a new study conducted by3Dsafety.org, in collaboration with Italian 3D printer manufacturer WASP, has analysed the exact quantities of toxic VOCs as well as potentially dangerous nanoparticles released during filament extrusion, in order to assess the potential health risks.

The new study, presented by Dr. Fabrizio Merlo and Dr. Eng. Stefano Mazzoni, starts off from other previous research conducted in the early 90s, which demonstrated that during the fusion and processing of plastic materials, several toxic particles are released as gases, including ammonia, cyanidric acid, phenol, and benzene, among others.

The lab tests showed that ABS is significantly more toxic than PLA, but that the corn-based polymer is not exempt form dangerous emissions, especially if extruded at temperatures higher than 200C. Furthermore (as may be expected), the same material spools, when acquired from different resellers, release very different quantities of VOCs, even if used in the same 3D printer and under the same parameters of speed and temperature.

A second critical aspect is that relating to the emission of nanoparticles, that is, particles with a diameter smaller than .1 micron, which can be absorbed directly by the pulmonary alveolus and the epidermis. In this case, the emissions, when using ABS, vary from 3 to 30 times those that occur when using PLA filament. The test also demonstrated that the time necessary for the nanoparticle concentration in the air to go back to standard levels was between 10 and 30 minutes after the extrusion processes stopped. Through a photo-ionization technology, the study (which has been published on 3Dsafety.organd will progressively be updated with further information) was also conducted on nylon, polystyrene, PET and other materials.

Among the effects that the absorption of toxic VOCs and nanoparticles can cause to humans, the most common are pulmonary pathologies, such as bronchitis, tracheitis, asthma. In some cases, these substances can also cause certain types of cancers, so this is not something to be taken lightly. The solution, however, is not too complicated. 3Dsafety.org, in collaboration with WASP, is working to increase awareness as to the potential risks of toxic emissions from filament, while several practical tips can be implemented right away.

For example, working in well ventilated rooms: the ideal solution would be using an air ventilation system capable of moving three times the rooms volume of air in one hour. This means that a room measuring 100 cubic meters should have a system capable of displacing 300 cubic meters of air in one hour. When using closed-chamber 3D printers, it may be possible in the near future to implement an active carbon filtration device, and the team is actively working toward development of a device specifically tailored for 3D printers, which can be regulated according to the type of filament material used.

Certainly this does not mean we should all just stop using 3D printers. However, dealing with the potential health risks of 3D printing materials early is the best way to make sure this technology evolves in a way that we can maximise its benefits and limit any risks involved.

Davide was born in Milan, Italy and moved to New York at age 14, which is where he received his education, all the way to a BA. He moved back to Italy at 26 and began working as an editor for a trade magazine in the videogame industry. As the market shifted toward new business models Davide started working for YouTech, the first iPad native technology magazine in Italy, where he discovered the world of additive manufacturing and became extremely fascinated by its incredible potential. Davide has since started to work as a freelance journalist and collaborate with many of Italys main generalist publications such as Corriere della Sera, Panorama, Focus Italy and Wired Italy: many of his articles have revolved around the different applications of 3D printing.

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Conductive Graphene 3D Printing PLA Filament

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament 100g

Availability:Usually Ships in 1 to 2 Business Days

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament, a material by Graphene 3D Lab, is specifically designed to allow you to 3D print electrically conductive components using almost any commercially available desktop 3D printer! By purchasing this filament, you agree that you have read and agree to the product description below, including the handling and disclaimer statements.

Download our PDF flyer byclicking here!

Our Conductive Graphene PLA Filament offers a volume resistivity of0.6 ohm-cm. Volume resistivity is the measure of a materials resistance to electricity within a cubic centimeter of material. In order to determine if the material will work for your project, you will have to keep in mind that the resistivity will change depending upon your print. It is suggested that our filament can be used for the applications below.

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament may also be used for applications which require superior strength to ABS and PLA.

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament can be used to create capacitive (touch) sensors used in a wide range of electronics which you interact with on a daily basis; it is an excellent material for designing human interface devices! Capacitive sensing can also be used to measure proximity, position, humidity, fluid levels, and acceleration.

Another application of Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is in the creation of electrically conductive circuitry for use in electronics. We love that 3D printing is a push-button process and we aim to keep it that way. Traditionally, 3D printing enthusiasts needed to add circuitry to their creation after it was printed in plastic, using copper wire; by offering a conductive filament, you can print graphene wiring simultaneously with your build process!

Note:The electrical resistance of a circuit must be considered in order to successfully use Conductive Graphene PLA Filament in electronics applications; specifically, the filament is designed for low-current applications.

Electromagnetic and Radiofrequency Shielding

The superior conductivity offered with our Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is not only excellent for 3D printed circuitry and sensors it also means our filament is wholly capable of use in EMI and RF shielding applications critical for use in a range of industries, including:

EMI/RF shielding is used to block the electromagnetic field and radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within a space; it is important to use EMI and RF shielding in a hospital, laboratory, or aerospace setting to protect against competing signals because they may lead to equipment giving false measurements. EMI/RF shielding accomplishes this by blocking AM, FM, TV, emergency services, and cellular signals.

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is ideal for designing EMI/RF shields used in highly-customized items.

High-Strength mechanical and functional parts

Because Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is mechanically stronger than ABS and PLA, it can be used to 3D print functional parts such as: hooks, hand-tools, and parts which require tooling, including drilling.

Our filament is shipped in a vacuum-sealed package with a desiccant packet. Conductive Graphene PLA Filament should be stored in a dry environment away from dust and other particles. User should avoid extended exposure to moisture. We recommend storing in an enclosed container with a desiccant packet. 3D printers, especially their nozzles, should always be maintained, and should be cleaned before and after use of Conductive Graphene PLA Filament to avoid complications during printing. Users are also instructed to wash their hands before and after use of Conductive Graphene PLA Filament.

Conductive Graphene PLA Filament softens at high-temperatures (~50C) and is designed to be used with prints intended for room-temperature operation; it is intended for low-voltage and low-current projects only. Do not exceed 12 volts and avoid using the filament for power supplys that exceed 100 mA. Resistivity of one meter of 1.75 mm filament is 4 kOhms. Keep in mind that a major factor influencing resistivity is contact resistivity, so shortening the length of the trace will not linearly correlate to a decrease in resistivity.

The intrinsic properties of our Conductive Graphene PLA Filament is such that it should not be left idle (as in not extruding or printing) in a heated printer nozzle. It may expand and cause blockage. After the printing is complete, remove filament from the nozzle promptly.

If using this material for dual-extrusion printing, we recommend using in conjunction with PLA.

A 3D printer nozzle larger than 0.5 mm is suggested for use of Conductive Graphene PLA Filament.

Interested in our conductive filament in pelletized form or other custom projects? Contact us today r by phone at (631) 284-9983.

Our materials and products may be used by skilled, experienced users, and at their own risk. To the fullest extent permissible by all applicable laws, we hereby disclaim any and all responsibility, risk, liability, and damages arising out of any death or personal injury resulting from the assembly or use of our products and materials. Specifications are subject to change without notice.

Recommended platform temperature: 50-55C

Recommended print speed: 2000 mm/min

Room temperature matters! Print in a cool dry room or your print might not come out clean. This filament is very plastic and is affected by ambient temperature.

Conductive Graphene Filament was tested using a direct drive 3D printing extruder. We do not guarantee that Conductive Graphene Filament will be compatible with non-direct drive 3D printers, such as delta models. Avoid leaving filament in a heated nozzle for an extended period of time.

Care after Printing: ALWAYS put your filament into a water proof air tight bag after using to limit contact with humidity. Dessicants can be very helpful.

How do I prevent clogging when printing with Graphene PLA? What should I know about Temperature?The intrinsic properties of our material are such that we do not recommend keeping it in the nozzle when its not being actively utilized. It will cause the thermal expansion of the filament resulting in the obstructed nozzle/ guiding tube. However at 220 C and with a relatively high printing speed it should print just fine. We do print substantial objects with each spool before we sell it. It will not print at 180-190 C as the melt viscosity isnt yet in range, so it will just expand and clog the nozzle. Printing at 250 C will result in partial degradation along with substantial aggregation of nanomaterial yielding the clogged nozzle as well. Please, observe the printing temperature recommendation (220 C) for this product. Also, please make sure that your printing bed is well leveled. If its not well leveled, you will likely accumulate significant build up on the external surface of the nozzle, which when it solidifies, will obstruct the melt flow. Try to clean the external surface of the cooled nozzle with alcohol if that happens. Make sure to keep filament in the closed bag with desiccants when not in use.

How to unclog nozzles when printing with Graphene PLA?The intrinsic properties of our conductive filament is such that it shall not be left idle (as not extruding-printing) in the heated printed nozzle. It may expand and cause blockage. After printing is finished it shall be unloaded promptly. Unfortunately, there is no easy at home way to clean the nozzle. We use harsh organic solvents to dissolve the material if needed. We have two other methods available as well. We advise to try and heat up the clogged nozzle to 200C (without filament present) and try to insert a small copper wire into the opening of the nozzle and push through the clog. You also can try to soak the unscrewed nozzle in alcohol and then try to clean it with the wire. The other way, try to flush it with a regular polymer, such as plain PLA or ABS. If nothing works you just may need to change the nozzle. The best way is to prevent blockage happen is not to leave filament sitting heated in the nozzle while printer is not actively printing. After the printing is complete, remove filament from the nozzle promptly and flush with a regular polymer filament. Please follow the storage guidelines to ensure the best quality of the material and use advised printing parameters to prevent material decomposition in the nozzle as the residues will cause blockage.Reel diameter: 20 cm (7.87 in)

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G6-Impact HIPS-Carbon Fiber-Graphene Filament 350g

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Grey PLA

Click the button below to add the PLA – 1.75mm – Grey to your wish list.

Free shippingin Canada for orders over $140 before tax. (via Canada Post)

Print it right with Spool3D PLA 3D printer filament. Our PLA thermoplastic filament is manufactured with tight tolerances from premium grade material. Our filament has been tested on popular fused filament fabrication desktop 3D printer platforms.

PLA filament is an excellent material for a beginner to start with, as it typically doesnt require a heated bed and has the added benefit of being a bioplastic, typically derived from corn. Low odour and consistently round diameters make this material very easy to work with.

PLA filament should be stored in a resealable plastic bag with thedessicant packprovided.

Please see our filament temperature guide here:Spool3D Temperature Guide

Please see our full colour palette here:Spool3D Colour Palette

1.75 mm plastic PLA filament(Polylactic Acid; tolerance +/- 0.04mm)

Optimum extrusion temperature: 190-230 degrees celsius

Consistently provides excellent build quality for low cost 3D printing.

Included in the box: 1kg spool of PLA175-10001GRY filament, vacuum packaged in plastic with dessicant

Buy Spool3D 3D printer filament online in Canada without the surprise cost of the exchange rate!

We promise to never spam you, and just use your email address to identify you as a valid customer.

Not certain if my old PLA spool got worn out or dried out, but out of the box, this one felt different. A nice level of stiffness while still being flexible. The light grey PLA doesnt seem to bleach out from heat like my dark red spool that was orange in reality. Prints like a DREAM! Once you find good settings, and have a sturdy printer, this will print beautifully. I tend to leave it a little hot at 230C with heated bed, but Ive printed at the same quality with the nozzle at just 200. I only prefer it for strength and ease. Needs little in the way of retraction, even on a delta with a 60cm Bowden tube.

TL;DR: I keep getting impressed by the models Im printing. Everything prints beautifully!

+sticks to glass bed with just hairspray

-requires some cooling time after print

I have been getting great results running 60mm/s at 195 degrees. It was shipped within a couple of hours of ordering.

Posted byBradenon September 09, 2017

Goes down without issue, and Ive been able to print it pretty fast so far. Still adjusting extrusion temperature, but 195-200 seems like a good compromise between speed and print quality at 60 mm/s. Sanded well but havent put any paint or primer on it yet. Will buy again.

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SMARTFIL® PLA

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn, sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to print materials in the 3D printing world. This PLA glows in the dark

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn,sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to printmaterials in the 3D printing world.

SMARTFIL® PLA Aubergine The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn, sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to print materials in the 3D printing world.

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn, sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to print materials in the 3D printing world.

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn,sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to printmaterials in the 3D printing world.

The fialment PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn, sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to print materials in the 3D printing world.

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn,sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to printmaterials in the 3D printing world.

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn,sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to printmaterials in the 3D printing world.

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn,sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to printmaterials in the 3D printing world.

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn,sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to printmaterials in the 3D printing world.

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn,sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to printmaterials in the 3D printing world.

The filament PLA is a biodegradable plastic due to its natural origin (corn,sugarcane or potatoes). In addiction, it is one of the most easy to printmaterials in the 3D printing world.

We are a Spanish 3d filament manufacturing company.

We distribute our products with our own brand.

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3DABSPLA

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ABS AND PLA FOR 3D PRINTING

3D3DABSPLAABSPLA

3DABSPLAABSPLA

3D33DD

33D (PC)

ABSPLA3D

ABSPLA

ABS – ABSABS

PLA -PLAPLAPLAPLA3D

ABS – ABSABSABS

PLA – PLA

ABSPLA

ABS – ABSABS/

PLA – ABSPLA PLA

ABS – ABS PLAABSABS(sanded)ABS(acetone)PLAABS

PLA – (sugar-beets)ABSPLAPLAABSABSPLAPLA

ABS – ABS

PLA – ABSPLA

Additionally one can find a handy chart comparing the two plastics on our Plastic Filament Buyers Guide

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3DPLAD

ECO3DPLA PLA Poly Lactic Acide,Polylactide,PLA100% PLA 100% 200 2 PLADPLAPLA ECO PLA; 0.1mm mm 3 PLA PLA PLA1200 g/cm3, 21.5 1.25 10min,2.16kg 5 150 ,0.455MPa 50 Mpa, 5mm/min 45 KJ/m2 5 % 20% – 1.750.1mm 3.000.1mm

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CoLiDo PLA

Low Temperature Filament for 3D Pen LT

Ideal for Home and Office Use

Higher Quality, Bigger Build Size

Low Temperature Filament for 3D Pen LT

PayPal Buyer Protection Policy

Home3D Filament CoLiDo PLA

Create your colorful and vivid world without harm!

US-imported material: good formability

High precision: uniform diameter (tolerance 0.03mm) + stable melting point

Printouts with excellent surface gloss

Environment protection: renewable biodegradable polymer plastic

Compatible with different desktop FDM 3D printers

Local customer services and technical supports (UK and USA)

PayPal protect you from checkout to delivery with anti-fraud technology

You can use Visa, MasterCard, Discover, or American Express to make PayPal payments

Buy now and the PLA 3D filament will arrive in a few business days.

Just put it on and so far the printout is good.

I have been using the Filaments from here for over a year now. I find that the quality is much better than other filaments from any other source. Gtreat Quality as well as excellent prints.

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Color: White, Black, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow

CoLiDo was established by a determined entrepreneur, who built it with a strong mix of passion, persistence and profound industry know-how…….See all

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3d pla filament

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Congo, Democratic Republic of the – COD

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) – FLK

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – VCT

Congo, Democratic Republic of the – COD

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) – FLK

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – VCT

3D Printer Filament 1kg/2.2lb 1.75mm 3mm ABS/PLA MakerBot RepRap

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Recycling PLA for 3D Printing

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Is the minimal waste process creating too much waste? If we can recycle prints and other materials this way, it might lead to a revolution of decentralized recyclers.

Growth in 3D printing marches on at an annual 26% clip. While new printers keep increasing the print speeds and range of materials that can be used, data on recycling these materials has been sparse. In July 2017,CNBCreported the world has produced over 9 billion tons of plastic since the 1950s, and only about 9% was recycled. If 3D printing is going to further increase plastic consumption, will there be a pile of plastic prototypes lining the landfills?

In a recent report in3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, Isabelle Anderson wrote about the mechanical properties of recycling one of 3D printings most popular materials. PLA, short for polylactic acid, is currently the standard filament type with the lowest barrier to entry in use. In the past, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was considered the optimal material for best print appearance. However, in the last few years, optimizations to PLA formulas and print settings have made this thermoplastic the best choice for general, run-of-the-mill 3D-printer projects and household goods you would create.

This is probably why the report used PLA(to find out more about other materials, check out Whats the Difference Between Recycling PET and HPDE? below). However, it was interesting that since PLA is a biodegradable thermoplastic, it made it harder to recycle. For example, if a test sample operates in a closed loop, are you gaining an accurate representation of how recyclable it is?

Production of the ProtoCycler, which is capable of grinding and re-extruding plastics for 3D printing, began after a successful crowd-sourcing campaign.

Going from a printer to a tensile tester, right back to the printer, only degrades the polymer by a small amount. In a number of closed-loop studies, samples were recycled and many times without much fluctuation. The problem arises when you include plastic that has been degraded or has an unknown origin. PLA is more sensitive to UV light and temperature compared to ABS. Since PLA is more likely to degrade, it is hard to determine what the mechanical properties would be if it were to be recycled.

Knowledge of 3D-printed materials is rather limited, but there are a few recycling platforms on the market. Whether testing for form, fit, or knick-knacks, these platforms can help reduce the amount of waste. There were some problems with the recycled PLA versus the virgin PLA. In Andersons report, problems emerged due to the nozzle becoming clogged with the recycled material.

The PLA was extruded through an entry-level 3D printer into tensile and shear specimens. After being tested, they were ground up, extruded into filament, and 3D printed again(see table).

The tensile modulus of elasticity was statistically unchanged. Although the average mechanical properties before and after recycling were similar, there was more variability in the results of the recycled filament, wrote Anderson. Additionally, when printing with the recycled filament there was some nozzle clogging, while none occurred with the virgin filament. Overall, the mechanical properties of specimens 3D printed from recycled PLA filament were similar to virgin properties, encouraging further development in the area of recycling 3D printed filament.

It seems 3D printing is leaving a wake of failed prints and no-longer-interesting knick-knacks behind it. Known as a minimal waste process, additive manufacturers may need to find a place other than the trash can for old or failed parts if they want to continue to support that maxim. Fortunately, some companies are trending toward environmental plastics and processes to reduce waste in more than one way. But in order to grow these companies, designers need more data so that they can better design with the recycled material.

At Maker Faire 2015, Filabot displayed its multiple desktop solution, which allows users to extrude or pelletize recycled or new types of plastics.

Whats the Difference Between Recycling PET and HDPE?

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycles well. In one closed-loop test, the mechanical properties of PET were still close to published values after 2,000 cycles. In open-loop tests, it wasnt possible to determine how many times the material was recycled, but they remained close to published values.

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) degrades and experiences chain scission followed by the chains cross linking. This is evident during impact testing, as cross linking will increase the impact the materials strength. In closed-loop testing, recycled HDPE stayed within published values, but in an open-loop test, the impact strength varied, indicating the material was degraded.

This shows the importance of understanding the origins of post-consumer polymer. However, recycled batches could be produced and tested. Either the tested material properties could be advertised on the product, or additive may be added to help the material fall within published values. Unfortunately, this all costs money, and plastics are cheap. Adding in these tests and additives makes it difficult to compete with virgin plastic.

Despite this, I am curious if anyone is trying to recycle PET bottles or any of the other economy polymers into 3D-printing filament. I think it would be interesting to collect some bottles, process them into a Filabot, and print parts.

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PLA vs ABS Plastic The Pros and Cons

There are loads of materials available, but when it comes to polymeres (like plastic), two types offilamentare most popular; PLA and ABS plastic. But what are the differences? Which one is best? To answer these questions, first let me tell you a bit more about them.

PLAis a bio-degradable type of plastic that is manufactured out of plant-based resources such as corn starch or sugar cane.  This is why it is called the green plastic. Be sure to throw it in afilament recyclerand youre as green as can be. Its widely used for packaging, such as food products, but of course you can also use it to print!

ABS plasticis made out of oil-based resources and it has a much higher melting point than PLA plastic. Its also stronger and harder. Because of these particular features, ABS is widely used for purposes ranging from car bumpers and motorcycle helmets to musical instruments, golfclubs and Lego.

 Can deform because of heat (like a cassette in a car)

 Made out of oil, so more damaging to the environment

+ Suitable for machine or car parts

 Deformes when not being print on a heated surface

 Hot plastic fumes when printing

 Therefore, you need ventilation

 Not suitable for using with food

A company thats making parts for machines will be better off when choosing ABS, because of its lifespan, its strength and its higher melting point. On the other hand, an artist who is making 3d models at home, will be better off choosing PLA because of its ease-of use, its appearance and because you dont need ventilation.

But, as you might have noticed, there are a few drawbacks to using either of the plastics. For instance, lets say you want to print some new cups and dishes at home. If you use PLA, you cant put it in the dishwasher since it would deform through the heat. ABS is not an option either, since its oil-based and therefore cannot be used for holding food or beverages. Readthis articlefor more info on ABS.

In conclusion, both ABS and PLA plastic have ups and downs, it depends largely on what and where you were planning on printing. Hopefully they invent a new kind of plastic one day thats cheap, doesnt do harm to the environment and is suitable for all possible jobs. If you want to learn more, check out thisin-depth article on ABS plastic.

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Thanks for the simple pros and cons lists and detailed explanation. Looks like Ill be going with PLA for my little 3D printer at the school club.

Another con against ABS is that it shrinks during printing.

ABS parts are easier to glue together

here you well define the different between PLA and ABS Plastic

Look at 3D printing, the more impressive it gets

Thanks for sharing that kind of useful information

What is the melting point of the ABS and PLA filaments.

Depends on the make and model of the filament. I have seen PLA ranging from 190c to 210C and I have seen ABS from 230C to 270C That is hardly definitive, that is just what I have seen

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